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I also saw how a teacher was trying to make the students use each other to get information. They got some questions that they had to answer and they were allowed to ask each other to get the answers, but only each other and they had to be in the classroom. When I observed this I saw how they got involved in the questions and listened to each other and got more involved then they had to in some questions. This is an example of Vygotskij´s theory ”the Zone of Proximal Development” or”Scaffolding”. They learn from a student that knows more than themselves and gets stimulated by this. Usually it is the teacher that is the mentor or the guide that directs the students to the information and this leads to the students progression of knowledge, but they can also use each other to get the same progression and at times maybe they get more from each other than from the teacher.

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Teaching activities: The relationship between theory and practiceEdit

Comment on this section by indicating which theories you have noticed reflected in your teaching or observations.


Behaviorism: stimulus - response

A theory of (language) learning that promotes the benefits of repetition and imitation. The audio-lingual method is based on behaviorism.

Innatism: competence - performance

A theory of language learning attributed to Chomsky. Language learning is believed to be an innate ability, triggered by social interaction. Competence refers to the innate, idealized grammar; according to Chomsky, the more interesting subject of linguistic research. Performance refers to individual language use, how variable and 'imperfect' (i.e., non-ideal) that may be. The competence-performance dichotomy has given rise to a large body of research on performance as indicators of different kinds of competence. The Swedish EFL curriculum is based on communicative competence as a conglomerate of sociolinguistic, grammatical, and pragmatic competence.

Comprehensible input: meet and challenge

A theory of language learning that stresses providing input that meets and also challenges each individual's level. Attributed to Krashen, who also developed the idea of the affective filter. In the classroom, comprehensible input takes the form of progression of skills, but not necessarily according to a schedule or grammatical order of acquisition.

Sociocultural theory: zone of proximal development

A theory of language learning that recognizes the significance of social interaction. Attributed to Vygotsky, who observed that children's learning normally occurs in the presence of adults, who represent 'more knowledgeable others'. Adults guide children's behavior by example, requiring or encouraging children to participate when they (the children) show evidence of being ready, and helping when necessary. In the classroom, sociocultural theory takes the form of social interaction, group work, pairing students of different levels.

Other lessons observedEdit

Use this section to submit observations of non-English lessons.

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